The 1st mode that I would like to discuss about it is the Shell mode. This is represented by the percentage sign (%) by end of the prompt command. On this mode, the root (and only the root) will always go to it when he logs in to the Juniper router.
In this mode, the root user can do the file system commands and manage them. What does it mean by file system commands? This means that you can create a file, delete a file, see what is in the file, copy a file and so on.
The 2nd mode that you should know on Juniper is the Operational mode. This is represented by the greater sign (>) by end of the prompt command. When you create a non-root user, and he logs in to the Juniper router, he will always go to the operational mode.
For the root user, to go from the shell modem to the operational mode he should use the command “CLI”.
In this mode, you can view the configuration. Meaning that any configuration on the router you can just check it from this mode using the “show” command most of the time. Also on this mode, you can do the troubleshooting using some application tools such as ping, traceroute. Also, you can connect remotely to other devices using SSH and Telnet. You can also reboot and shutdown the device from this mode.
So, in a summary, from the operational modem you can view the configuration on the router and using some utilities such as ping, traceroute to do the troubleshooting as well as some other utilities for some other tasks.
The last mode that we have on Juniper is the Configuration mode. This is represented by the hash sign (#) by end of the prompt command. To reach to this mode, you should be on the operational modem then write “edit” or “configure” then you can reach to this mode.
This mode is used to configure the router and to make changes on the router.
Those are the 3 different types of modes we have on the Juniper devices, let’s now apply a LAB to play with those 3 modes.
My PC is still connected via console to the router. I have just rebooted the router. Let’s connect to the root using the root username and password:
— JUNOS 12.1X44-D15.5 built 2013-06-06 18:07:29 UTC
You can see that once I logged in to the root account, it took me to the shell modem which is represented by the (%) sign.
I have already mentioned that on the shell modem we can do everything related to the file management things. Let’s list what are the files that are available on the router:
.cshrc .login .ssh config2
.history .profile 1
Using the command “ls” I can list the files that are available.
Let’s see what the “.profile” file has as a content:
root@R1% cat .profile
# $FreeBSD: src/etc/root/dot.profile,v 1.20 1999/08/27 23:24:09 peter Exp $
I used the command “cat” to see what is on this file. As you have already experienced, we are using command that normally we use on Linux environments, that’s because Juniper is based on FreeBSD as I have previously explained, meaning if you have some knowledge with Linux you may find Juniper very easy to be configured.
Now let’s do more things on this mode. I will copy the file “.profile” to another file called “.profile2” then I will delete it.
Let’s 1st copy the file to “.profile2”:
root@R1% cp .profile .profile2
.cshrc .login .profile2 1
.history .profile .ssh config2
I have successfully copied it and it is showing when I list the files again (the command to copy is “cp”).
Let me now delete “.profile2” using the remove command “rm”:
root@R1% rm .profile2
.cshrc .login .ssh config2
.history .profile 1
The file has been deleted successfully 😊
So now we understood more about the shell mode, let’s check the things that the operational mode can do.
To go to the operational mode from the shell mode, you need to write the command “CLI”:
Now we are on the operational mode.
Let’s make a question mark and see what commands I can use here:
clear Clear information in the system
configure Manipulate software configuration information
file Perform file operations
help Provide help information
load Load information from file
monitor Show real-time debugging information
mtrace Trace multicast path from source to receiver
op Invoke an operation script
ping Ping remote target
quit Exit the management session
request Make system-level requests
restart Restart software process
save Save information to file
set Set CLI properties, date/time, craft interface message
show Show system information
ssh Start secure shell on another host
start Start shell
telnet Telnet to another host
test Perform diagnostic debugging
traceroute Trace route to remote host
As I have explained, you can use this mode to see things on the router using the “show” command, and to use utilities from troubleshooting such as ping and traceroute as well as to be able to connect remotely using Telnet and SSH.
Let’s for example see what the interfaces on the router are:
root@R1> show interfaces terse
Interface Admin Link Proto Local Remote
ge-0/0/0 up down
ge-0/0/0.0 up down
gr-0/0/0 up up
ip-0/0/0 up up
lsq-0/0/0 up up
lt-0/0/0 up up
mt-0/0/0 up up
sp-0/0/0 up up
sp-0/0/0.0 up up inet
sp-0/0/0.16383 up up inet 10.0.0.1 –> 10.0.0.16
10.0.0.6 –> 0/0
22.214.171.124 –> 126.96.36.199
188.8.131.52 –> 0/0
ge-0/0/1 up down
ge-0/0/1.0 up down inet 10.10.10.1/24
fe-0/0/2 up down
fe-0/0/2.0 up down eth-switch
fe-0/0/3 up down
fe-0/0/3.0 up down eth-switch
fe-0/0/4 up down
fe-0/0/4.0 up down eth-switch
fe-0/0/5 up down
fe-0/0/5.0 up down eth-switch
fe-0/0/6 up down
fe-0/0/6.0 up down eth-switch
fe-0/0/7 up down
fe-0/0/7.0 up down eth-switch
fxp2 up up
With the command “show interfaces terse” I can see a list of the available interfaces on my Juniper router.
Let me show you how you can restart your Juniper router as well.
root@R1> request system ?
autorecovery Manage autorecovery information
certificate Manage X509 certificates
commit Perform commit related operations
configuration Request operation on system configuration
download Manage downloads
firmware Upgrade or downgrade firmware
halt Halt the system
health Online diagnostic request
license Manage feature licenses
logout Forcibly end user’s CLI login session
power-off Power off the system
reboot Reboot the system
scripts Manage scripts (commit, op, event)
services Request service applications information
set-encryption-key Set EEPROM stored encryption key
snapshot Archive data and executable areas
software Perform system software extension or upgrade
storage Request operation on system storage
zeroize Erase all data, including configuration and log files
root@R1> request system reboot
Using this command, you can simply reboot your Juniper router and this is done from the Operational mode.
The last thing that I want to show you in this topic is the configuration mode. As I said, on this mode you can do the configuration on the Juniper router. To go from the operational mode to the configuration mode, you need to write any of the following 2 commands:
I will write “edit” and see if I can go to the configuration mode:
Entering configuration mode
I am in the configuration mode 😊
Let’s do a simple task by just changing the name of the router from R1 to R2 and see if it works.
root@R1# set system host-name R2
Don’t forget to save your configuration after you make the changes so it is applied. I can see clearly that the router name has been changed successfully to R2.
That’s all what I wanted to explain about the different modes on Juniper. I have showed you also different LABs on each mode so you can understand it better 😊.